1.0 Background Information
1.1 Anambra State
Anambra State was created during the State creation exercise of 1991. It is one of the 5 States in the South East Geo-political Zone and represents a strategic access to the rest of the South-East, and South-South Zone of the Country from the River Niger end. The people are Igbo by tribe and predominantly Christians. The State has a total estimated population of 4million (2004 estimate) and a population density second only to Lagos State. The female population of 50.8% is only slightly above that of the male at 49.2%. 62% of its population is estimated to live in the urban areas, a fast expanding proportion. The State recently designated 10 towns as urban in recognition of this. The result of urbanization is the emergence of urban slums since social facilities and infrastructure – water, roads, electricity, sanitation services – are stretched to their limit. Major towns include: Awka – the State Capital, Nnewi and Onitsha, Ekwuluobia, Ihiala among others.
1.2 Geographical Location
Anambra State lies north of the coastlands and delta region of Eastern Nigeria between latitude 5043’N and 6037’E. It is bounded in the North by Kogi and Benue States, in the south by Imo and Abia States; in the east by Enugu State and in the West by River Nigeria and Delta State.
The current population of the State is about 4.5 million. Awka is the state capital. Beside Awka, there are two other metropolitan towns which are the economic power houses of the State. These cities are Onitsha and Nnewi. These are known and recognized all over Nigeria as centers of commercial activities and production. Other communities adjoining Onitsha are Nkpor, Obosi, Oba, Ogidi, and Nnobi .The adjoining cities within the Awka – Onitsha – Nnewi triangle are all growing rapidly to Urban communities and are benefiting from overflows of economic activities along the Onitsha – Nnewi axis. The projected 2015 population of Anambra state is 5,425,149. In 2005, Anambra state population comprises (72.8%) urban, (25.2%) semi urban and (2%) rural. In 2015, the population will become (80.0%) urban, (18.6%) semi urban and (1.4%) rural.
The climate is of the Guinea Savannah type with two distinct seasons; rainy and dry. The rainy season is marked by high rainfall with annual mean of 1800 mm. It begins around the April and ends November while the day season covers the remaining months.. The mean annual temperature is about 270C. The annual rain is enough to ensure ample stockpile of fresh water in under-ground concrete tanks, particularly in local Governments areas where there are no surface water and perenial streams.
The vegetation is the Guinea savannah type. Anambra State is drained by the Niger and Anambra rivers. The watershed formed by the Nanka plateau separates the Nkisi, Idemili, Orashi and Njaba rivers, which flow directly to the Niger, from the complex systems of the Mamu and Imo Rivers.
1.5 Geology and Hydrogeology
Anambra state has the following main geological formations:
• Alluvium Deposite was deposited in the Quaternary, and outcops in the areas close to the Niger River and its tributaries flood plain.
• Coastal Plain Sand. This outcrops around the Ihiala area. It is whitish in colour and friable. The formation is very productive.
• Nanka sands, part of the Ameki Formation. The formation forms part of a Cuesta with it’s type locality seen at Nanka, Ekwulobia and Oko area.
• Bende Ameki Formation whose Cuesta runs through, Awka, into Orlu in Imo State. The Formation was deposited during the Eocene Regression. The formation consists of lower and upper beds of continental deposites. The lithology consists ofalternating sequence of sandstone shale and argillacious sandstone.. The sand stone is moderately sorted, medium grained. The upper part of the Formation and poorly consolidated.. The Formation outcrops at over 30% of the State and is very productive.
• Lignite Formation. This Formation was deposited during the transgression of the Eocene – Miocene stage about 15 million yrs ago. It outcrops in some part of of the State at Onitsha North, Idenmili, and Nnewi Local Government Areas. The lithology consists of thick beds of sand, sandstone, clay amd lignite. The lignite presence was as a result of incomplete formation of coal and consist of stratified carbonacious materials derived from vegetation.. The thick sand body of the formation form good productive aquifers.
• Imo Shale Formation. Deposited in the Tertiary era. The stage was Paleocene about 20 million years ago. The deposite was mainly marine shale and lithology consist of clayey shale that is blue black in colour. The formation has a sandy facies called the Ebenebe Sandstone. This sand member is the productive unit and occurs mainly in upper / shallow depth less than 100m
Description of the LGA
Aguata LGA is one of the oldest and largest LGA in Nigeria. The LGA boundary was adjusted when Orumba North and South were carved out of the old Aguata LGA in 1996. The LGA has a land area of 19,906.25km2, with sandy soil tropical formation. The average annual temperature varies between 26-27OC. The 2006 National census put the LGA population at 192,760 male and 177,412female making up a total LGA population of 370,172 people. In addition, the LGA has 14 autonomous communities (Agulu-Ezechukwu, Akpo, Amesi, Achina, Ekwulobia, Ezinifite, Igbo-Ukwu, Ikenga, Isuofia, Nkpologwu, Oraeri, Uga, Umuchu and Umuona), with each comprising a mix of rural, small towns and urban settlements. Most residents are Igbo. The communities operate a patriarchy head of households and ownership of property. In the LGA, the extended family system is strong and the men and women are predominantly traders. The predominant religion is Christianity.
In Aguata LGA, the predominant community based organizations are the town unions, age grades, church societies and parent teachers association. These anchor social development of their communities and are the rallying point for discipline, orderliness and maintenance of law and order, characterized by levies for development and defaulters. Also, the LGA has some tourist centres such as Igbo Ukwu water museum and Obizi-Uga water site.
Administration of the LGA
The LGA is administered by a democratically elected chairman, ten council members, head of service, treasurer and heads of various functional programme units of the LGA, comprising health, works, agriculture, education and social development, administration and accounts.
The LGA has 76 public primary schools; with two out of the 14 autonomous communities lacking at least one (1) secondary school. There is no tertiary educational institution in the LGA. In primary schools, there are 147 degree holders’ teachers, 637 National Certificate in Education holders, 46 teachers training certificate holders, while 11 hold either National Diploma (2) or Associate Certificate in Education (9), respectively. The LGA is characterized with poor infrastructures and gross inadequacy in the existing public primary and secondary schools.
The LGA has three (3) General Hospitals; 19 PHC and maternity centres, 11 Health Posts and 22 private hospitals in various settlements located within the 14 autonomous communities. Moreover, the public health facilities in the LGA had 1,255 adult beds and 615 cots and served by 96 health officers, comprising one (1) medical doctor, 20 nurses, 65 community health officers, 9 environmental health officers and one (1) rural health officer. However there are many private health facilities located at close distances to many households in the LGA. However, there is lack of essential drugs and equipment in the public facilities while high cost of services is predominant in the privately run heath facilities in the LGA.
Erosion is a major threat to economic livelihood and wellbeing of residents in the LGA with about 8 autonomous communities (Ekwulobia, Agulu-Ezechukwu, Igbo-Ukwu, Amesi, Ezinifite, Akpo, Umuchu and Uga) gravely affected.
2.2 Anambra East LGA
Description of the LGA
Anambra East LGA is a riverine LGA. Agriculture is the predominant occupation of the resident which contributes significantly to the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) and internally generated revenue in the LGA, over 75% of the workforce is engaged in agriculture, about 10% in civil service while others are engaged in trading and in the informal sector of the economy.
The LGA was carved out of the old Anambra LGA in 1991 and has a population of 153,331 people (2006 population census). The LGA occupies approx 264 km2. The LGA is bounded in the west, North and East by Anambra West, Ayamelum and Awka North LGAs, respectively. The average annual temperature varies between 79-80OF. The LGA has 11 autonomous communities (Aguleri, Umuleri, Nsugbe, Igbariam, Nando, UmuobaAnam, Eziagulu-Otu, Enugwu-Otu, Mkpunando, Ikem-Ivite and Igboezunu), with each comprising a mix of rural, small towns and urban settlements. Most residents are Igbo speaking ethnicity and the communities operate a patriarchy head of households and ownership of property as value and thrust are placed on the male child. In the LGA, the extended family system is strong and the men and women are predominantly traders. The predominant religion is Christianity.
In Anambra East, over 70 percent of the residents are poor and the predominant community based organizations were the town unions, age grades, church societies and parent teachers association. These anchor social development of their communities and are the rallying point for discipline and orderliness and maintenance of law and order, characterized by levies for development and defaulters.
Administration of the LGA
The LGA is administered by a chairman, ten council members, head of service, treasurer and head of various functional programme units of the LGA, comprising health, works, agriculture, education and social development, administration and accounts.
Anambra east LGA has 53 primary schools, 504 classes. Primary schools are evenly spread in all communities in the LGA, according to the LGA LEEDS (Anambra East LEEDS, 2010) document though their spread is not known. However, the proportion of teachers reduced from 441 to 368 between year 2007 and 2009, an 18% decline. In addition, there were 24 adult learning centres in the LGA having 44 instructors and 630 students. The educational system in the LGA however has shortage of personnel, poorly funded and lack adequate supervision.
The LGA has one (1) General Hospital in Umueri and 21 PHC and maternity centres in various settlements located within the 11 autonomous communities. In addition, there are many private health facilities located at close distances to many households in the LGA. There is a dearth of essential drugs and equipment in the public facilities while high cost of services is predominant in the privately run health facilities in the LGA.
Erosion is the major threat to economic livelihood and wellbeing of residents in the LGA with high water table too in many settlements.
At the creation of the State in 1991, the Ministry bore the name department of Public Utilities in the office of the Executive Governor, Government House Awka. This name existed up till 1993, and by 1994 it was transformed to Bureau of Public Utilities and Rural Development, Government House, Awka. This lasted up to 1999 when it was rename Bureau of Basic Infrastructure and Rural Development. This name existed up to 4th October, 2007 when Executive Council under Governor Peter Obi’s Administration created the Ministry of Public Utilities Water Resources and Community Development through Exco Circular letter No. SSG/EXCO/S.6/V/324 dated 4th Oct. 2007 and Head of Service Circular No.HOS/Adm/179/393 of 8th Nov, 2007.
With the creation of a full fledged Ministry and the Federal Government’s guidelines on Water Resources, all Water Projects in the State were centralised under the Ministry through the letter No. HOS/Adm/179/401 dated 10th January, 2008. With this, Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (RUWASSA) now became part of the Ministry.
The responsibility of the Ministry is to provide services to the people of Anambra State in the areas of water & electricity supply, fire safety and community development through her various departments (Water Resources, Electrical Engineering., Fire Services, Accts, Admin and PRS) and Agencies (ANSWC and RUWASSA).
Roles and Responsibilities of the MPUWR&CD
• Coordinating all water related programmes of the State Water Agencies, namely, ANSWC for urban water supply and RUWASSA for rural water supply and sanitation.
• Organizing and carrying out investment planning for water demand and costing in the State.
• Development and implementation of Water Supply and Sanitation policy of the State
• Liaison with E.U, UNICEF and other donor agencies in the implementation of water supply and sanitation sector reform programme of the state.
• Developing the water sector data base inventory of all boreholes in the State.
• Developing an underground water and hydro geological map of the State.
• Providing professional and technical advice on water sector best practices
• Providing the organisational structure of the relevant water sector Institutions to the State.
• Responsible for fire services in the State.
• Carrying out rural electrification in the State.
• Community Development Projects.
Anambra State Small Towns Water Supply and Sanitation Agency
The Water Supply and Sanitation Agency is yet to be established. However, it is a unit in the Water Supply Department of the Ministry of Public Utilities and Water Resources. The unit is responsible for coordinating all small towns’ water supply and sanitation activities such as formation of Water Consumers’ Association (WCA), training of WCA executives, baseline surveys and technical support for Operation and maintenance of WASH facilities. It is also currently supporting the development of Private Sector Participation strategy.
3.2 Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (RUWASSA)
The Rural Water Supply and Sanitation Agency (RUWASSA) was created to carry out the following functions:
• Collaborate with the WASH Units of the relevant LGA and the WASHCOMS in the communities, agree and design appropriate technology for water supply to each community and coordinate the construction, rehabilitation and supervision of same.
• Issue certificate of compliance with standards set by the Agency for the construction of water schemes and hand over such schemes to the community for management and operation, subject to the technical supervision by the Agency and the LGA WASH department.
• Design, and supervise the construction and sinking of boreholes and other water works by individuals or corporation bodies in the rural areas of the State and charge appropriate fees as the Agency may deem appropriate from time to time approve.
• Support the State Rural Water Supply Programme.
• Design and supervise the construction of all new sanitation facilitates in the rural areas, rehabilitates, monitor and improve all existing sanitation facilitates and support the State Rural Sanitation Programme.
• Liaise with the federal and State Government Ministries and Agencies in the design and implementation of programmes and projects in the area of rural water supply, and water-related sanitation.
• Commission and support studies and research projects that will facilitate the execution of the functions of the Agency.
• Undertake WASH education and create awareness of WASH principles in the communities, particularly in schools and amongst women and children.
• Organize technical training of LGA WAS department staff, key officers on the WASHCOMs and local artisans for the operation and maintenance of the water supply scheme.
• Promote improvement of tradition sources of community water supply (protected spring sources, hand dug wells, rain water harvest etc.).
• Promote construction and maintenance of public toilet facilities, household toilet facilities.
• Ensure compliance with the Nigerian Driving Water Standards (NDWQS).
• Monitor and protect the quality of raw water sources in collaboration with the Ministry responsible for water resources.
• Monitor and undertake “preventive and remedial action, in collaboration with the Ministry of Health, any outbreak of any disease or any other real or potential health threats associated with the delivery or provision of water supply and sanitation services in the rural areas.
• Promote private sector participation in the water supply and sanitation industry in the rural areas to attract resources for sustainable development of the rural water sector.
• Develop mechanism and procedures for stakeholder participation in monitoring and evaluation of rural development plans programmes and other activities.
• Coordinate the activities of all WASH departments of LGAs in all the rural areas in the implementation of State WASH Programmes for rural areas.
• Conduct raw and treated water quality investigations to ensure compliance by all operators in the rural water supply and sanitation sector with the Nigerian Driving Water Quality Standards.
3.3 Anambra State Water Corporation (AnSWC)
The Anambra State Water Corporation is responsible for urban water supplies in the state. It is currently being reorganized to reposition it for effective service delivery. It has 12 zonal offices and approximately 1000 staff with major schemes in Onitsha and Nnewi.
The Project Implementation Agency (PIA) was selected from the Project Recipient Agencies (PRA). They include:
• Project Director: Ministry of Public Utilities & Water Resources
• Imprest Administrator: Rural Water & Sanitation Agency
• Imprest Accounting Officer: Ministry of Public Utilities & Water Resources
• Alternate Imprest Administrator: Ministry of Public Utilities & Water Resources
• Alternate Imprest Accounting Officer: Rural Water & Sanitation Agency
• Technical Officer/Chief Engineer: Water Corporation
• Monitoring and Evaluation officer: Ministry of Public Utilities & Water Resources
• Principal Geologist: Small Town Water and Sanitation unit
• Community Development/Management: Rural Water & Sanitation Agency